Definition of Public health according to Winslow (1920), Public Health (Public Health) is the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and improving health through "Community Organizing Efforts" to:
- Improvement of environmental sanitation
- Eradication of infectious diseases
- Education for personal hygiene
- Organizing medical and care services for early diagnosis and treatment.
- Development of social engineering to ensure that everyone is met with the necessities of a decent life in maintaining their health.
Definition of Public Health
According to the American Medical Association (1948), definition of public health is the science and art of maintaining, protecting and improving public health through community organizing efforts.
Scope of Public Health
The scientific disciplines that underlie public health science include:
- Biological sciences
- Medical science
- Environmental Science
- Anthropology (the study of culture in society)
- Education science
Therefore, public health science is a multidisciplinary science.
Broadly speaking, the disciplines that underpin public health science, or often referred to as the main pillars Public Health Sciences include the following:
- Biostatistics/Health Statistics.
- Environmental Health.
- Health Education and Behavioral Sciences.
- Public Health Administration.
- Community Nutrition.
- Occupational Health.
Factors Affecting Public Health Degree: According to Hendrick L. Blumm, there are 4 factors that affect public health status, namely:
- Health Services
Of the 4 factors above, it turns out that the influence of behavior is quite large followed by the influence of environmental factors, health services and heredity. The four factors above are closely related and influence each other. Healthy behavior will support an increase in health status, this can be seen from the many diseases based on behavior and lifestyle. Healthy eating habits can prevent us from many diseases, including heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, obesity, diabetes mellitus and others.
The behavior / habit of washing hands before eating can also prevent us from gastrointestinal diseases such as diarrhea, diarrhea and others. At present the government has tried to fulfill 3 aspects that are closely related to health service efforts, namely efforts to fulfill the availability of health service facilities by building Community Health Centers, Village Midwives, Village Drug Posts, and other networks. Referral services were also improved with the emergence of new hospitals in each district/city.
Efforts to increase access to public health service facilities directly are also facilitated by the existence of a community health insurance program for the underprivileged. This program runs in synergy with other government programs such as the direct cash assistance program (BLT), compulsory education and others.
To ensure that health service facilities can provide effective services to the community, the government implements a quality control program. For services in hospitals, the quality control program is carried out by carrying out hospital accreditation. The 4 factors that affect the degree of public health above do not stand alone, but influence each other.
Therefore development efforts must be carried out simultaneously and mutually support each other. Health efforts implemented must be comprehensive, this means that health efforts must include preventive/promotive, curative and rehabilitative efforts.
With the various efforts above, it is hoped that the government's role as a regulator and implementer of development can be carried out to improve the Degree of Public Health. Public Health Goals:
- Maintained and increased family health status.
- Maintained and improved community health status.
- Maintained and increased community nutritional status.
- Maintaining and improving the mental health status of the community.
- Increasing the number and coverage of health care with pre-financing efforts.