The addition of nutrients to foodstuffs is known as fortification or enrichment. Other terms that are often used with the same intent are supplement ( addition ), restoration (restoration, or restoration) and also use a new term that is nutrification which literally means nourishing or in other words increasing nutritional value.
The objectives of increasing the level and quality of food nutrition, are:
- The added nutrients do not change the color and taste of foodstuffs.
- These nutrients should be stable during storage.
- Does not cause negative interactions with other nutrients contained in foodstuffs.
- The amount added must take into account the needs of the individual, so that the possibility of poisoning (due to overdose) can be avoided.
Types of Food Nutrition Quality Improvement
Supplementation should be done by meeting certain requirements. For the purpose of increasing the nutritional value of a foodstuff, the requirements that must be met include the following:
- The added nutrients do not change the color and image of foodstuffs.
- These nutrients should be stable during storage.
- These nutrients do not cause the onset of a negative interactive with other nutrients contained in food ingredients.
- The amount added must take into account the needs of the individual, so that the possibility of poisoning (due to over-dosing) can be avoided.
The efficiency of protein use or the nutritional quality of a protein can be improved by adding to protein deficiency (deficiency), a small amount of other proteins rich in low levels of amino acids in the protein that defisien. For example, in corn, the disadvantage of corn content is that its essential amino acids are low. Especially lysine and tryptophan, which is why using high jangung should be balanced with the use of other ingredients as a source of protein with high amino acids, such as soy flour.
The method that is usually used is to add to a protein defisien whose number is gradually increased. Then each mixture evaluated its nutritional value (PER value) using experimental mice. Bressani (1975) stated that the results of experiments on the addition of soybean flour in corn showed that with the addition of soybean flour there was an increase in the quality of corn protein, which reached a maximum of 8% soy flour addition (corn-soybean ratio = 9:1). The increase in nutritional value is due to the lack of lysine in corn protein. Examples of the effect of the addition of soybean flour on corn.
Dietary fiber supplementation
Today many manufactured and marketed dietary fiber in the form of pills or tablets, called supplements. What is meant by dietary fiber supplementation here is the addition of dietary fiber in the processing of a food product, such as bread, biscuits, and others, with the aim to increase fiber levels.
Due to its good function for health, dietary fiber is no longer considered a non-essential ingredient; the National Cancer Institute and the Federation of the American Societies for Experimental Biology in the United States, recommend that dietary fiber consumption be increased to about 20-30 g per day (ncl, 1984; Pilch, 1987).
Aside from fruits and vegetables, dietary fiber can also be obtained from agricultural waste such as wheat bran, rice bran (bran), oats bran, tofu pulp, soy sauce pulp, and others. Dietary fiber supplementation can be done on food products such as cookies, crackers, tortilla chips, fruit smack, exruded snacks, pretzels, granola bars, and other food products including bread.
The results of Lynda Suzana 's research (1992), showed that rice bran supplementation that has been stabilized (heated in autoclaves) as much as 15% in the manufacture of sweet bread, does not affect the level of bread development; and can increase the level of dietary fiber to be doubled (2.3% to 4.5%). In addition, the increase in niacin levels in bread, which originally was about 1.68 mg / 100 g to 2.24 mg / 100g.
Supplementation of rice bran (15%) in the manufacture of biscuits, requires the addition of banana flour (15%) to cover the unpleasant smell of bran. The level of dietary fiber in biscuits can be increased more than twice, which is initially the level of about 3.6% increased to 8.8%; While niacin levels increased from the original about 0.66 mg / 100 g to about 2.09 mg / 100 g (Lynda Suzana, 1992).
a) Mixed Food Ingredients (BMC)
Mixed foodstuffs (BMC) are a mixture of foodstuffs in a particular comparison, whose nutritional levels are high (Department of Health, 1979). Mixed food ingredients can be used as additional food ingredients in serving food consumed daily, so that the adequacy of the recommended nutrients can be fulfilled. To complement the nutritional deficiencies contained in the daily dish, BMC must be given in calculated quantities (Hermana, 1976) Further Hermana (1997) suggested that BMC can also be used as baby food, as a complement to breast milk or a substitute for breast milk, as a nutritional education tool to show a good arrangement of dishes. It can also be as an ingredient in the manufacture of snack food (Widya Karya Nasional Pangan and Nutrition, 1983).
The composition of BMC nutrients is adjusted to the nutritional needs of the target group. The target groups in question are toddlers, pregnant women, nursing mothers and manual laborers. Thus in the preparation of BMC it is necessary to pay attention to some basic considerations (Hermana, 1976), namely as follows:
- The type of nutritional condition is not to be overcome.
- Vulnerable groups that will be given BMC.
- Possibility to manufacture and distribute BMC.
- The possibility of consumer acceptance of BMC that includes taste, conformity with eating patterns and habits.
Furthermore, Hermana (1997) said that in the preparation of BMC must meet the following requirements:
- High nutritional value, energy and high protein.
- It is a great source of vitamins and minerals.
- It's well received.
- The price is affordable by the purchasing power of the target group.
- Can be made from locally produced foodstuffs.
- Its shelf life is sufficient during the time of circulation until consumed.
In the preparation of BMC must pay attention to the pattern of adequacy of amino acids according to the age group that has been determined by FAO / WHO / UNU (1980) Mixed food ingredients can be arranged using two, three, or four foodstuffs. The main ingredient is a source of calories. Other ingredients are added to complement the small amounts of amino acids in the main ingredients. The main ingredients can also complement amino acids in other foodstuffs (Mohamad, 1979).
In developing countries mixed food ingredients consist of soybeans or legumes as a source of protein, while rice or other cereals are a source of energy. In addition, tubers such as sweet potatoes, sweet potatoes can be used as a source of energy (Hermana et al, 1977).
In compiling BMC, the more foodstuffs used the better the nutritional value. Mixed Food Ingredients (BMC) is made from legumes and tempeh flour that is formulated so that it meets the adequacy of caloric and nutritional value. Tempeh is the result of soy fermentation and is well known for its advantages both nutritional value and from its bioactive content that is beneficial for health. Its use is as a mixed food ingredient to make various wet and dry cakes. Technical /economical advantages are durable, high protein digestibility, suitable for children and seniors, and high-calorie high-calorie.
Research by the ASEAN Nutrition Institute concluded that tempeh can be used in the manufacture of mixed foodstuffs to overcome the problem of lack of calories, protein, and diarrheal diseases in children under five. A piece of fried tempeh (50 grams) is enough to improve the nutritional quality of 200 g of rice. The foodstuffs of rice-tempeh, corn-tempeh, gaplek-tempeh, in a ratio of 7:3, are good enough to be given to children under five.
The UPT BPPTK LIPI food program is a continuation of development activities that have been implemented by ex UPT BBOK LIPI and implement the results of research activities of LIPI Chemical Research Center. One of them is to perfect the form of food end products for the improvement of school-age children's nutrition with the main components of tempeh flour. The form of product that has been launched is snack cake.
b) BMC Tempeh Flour
BMC Tempeh flour is a mixed flour from tempeh flour and other local ingredients (rice flour, green bean flour etc.). This BMC Tempe flour can be made into food products (snacks) that can be used in the Supplemental Feeding Program (PMT) for school-age children and toddlers. Snacks made from BMC Tempe, are declared to have nutritional value in accordance with the requirements of the PMT-AS program (Presidential Decree No.1 of 1997 paragraph III) which contains 300 Kal and 5 g of protein. This BMC Tempe product has been used to improve the nutritional condition of school children and toddlers. The nutritional content in 100 g of BMC Tempe Flour is energy 375 Kal, protein 16%, fat 2.5%, carbohydrates 71.7%, vitamins B1, B2, B12, iron, calcium, and potassium.
Food fortification is the addition of one or more nutrients (nutrients) to food. The main goal is to increase the level of consumption of added nutrients to improve the nutritional status of the population. It should be noted that the main role of food fortification is the prevention of deficiencies, thereby avoiding the occurrence of disorders that lead to human suffering and socio-economic harm. However, food fortitcation is also used to remove and control nutritional deficiencies and the resulting disorders.
The Joint Food and Agricuktural Organization World Health Organization (FAOIWO) Expert Commitee on Nutrition (FAO/WHO, 1971) considers the term fortification to best describe the process by which macronutrients and micronutrients are added to the food consumed in general. To maintain and to improve nutritional quality, each is added to a food or food mixture.
The terms double fortijication and multiple fortification are used when 2 or more nutrients are added to a food or food mixture. Food carriers of added nutrients are called 'Vehicles', while the added nutrients are called 'Fortificants'. In general, food fortification can be applied for the following purposes:
- To correct the deficiency of substances from food (to correct deficiency of added nutrients).
- To restore substances that were originally present in siqnifikan amounts in food but experienced loss during processing.
- To improve the nutritional quality of processed food products (factories) used as a source of nutritious food such as infant formula.
- To ensure nutritional equivalence of processed food products that replace other foods, such as margarine which is fortified as a substitute for butter.
Enrichment is the addition of one or more nutrients to the food of origin at the level set in international standards
d. Complementation (substitution)
Complementation is an effort to complement the nutrients contained in foodstuffs that contain deficiencies in certain nutrients.
Food quality assessment is the quality assessment of foodstuffs that have undergone processing or cooking. The purpose of food quality assessment is to get quality standards that are suitable for consumption. Food Quality Assessment consists of two ways, namely objective assessment (physical, biological, chemical, microorganisms) and subjective (organoleptic: Color, volume, texture, viscosity, ability, type weight).
The addition of nutrients to foodstuffs is known as fortification or enrichment. Other terms that are often used with the same intent are supplement ( addition ), restoration (restoration, or restoration) and also use a new term that is nutrification (nutrification) which literally means nourishing or in other words increasing nutritional value.