Glossary of Network Operating Systems Part One

Glossary of Network Operating Systems Part One. A glossary is an alphabetical list of terms in a particular domain of knowledge which is supplemented by definitions for these terms. Usually the glossary is at the end of a book and includes terms in the book that are newly introduced or at least are not commonly found.

network operating system

The following is a glossary about network operating systems:

  • Terminal Application: a program for communicating textually with the operating system through typing commands.
  • Backup (computer): an attempt to duplicate data when damage occurs original data.
  • Basic Input Output System (BIOS): a set of basic commands to manage input and output on a computer.
  • Boot loader: a program to activate an operating system.
  • Booting: a collection of commands that are executed to activate the operating system.
  • Command Line Interface (CLI): the interface at which the user interacts through typing special commands.
  • Daemon / Service / Service: a process that runs in the background without the need for direct interaction with the user.
  • Root directory: the top directory on the UNIX / Linux operating system is symbolized by a character slash (/).
  • Directory: a catalog on the file system used to group files or directories
    the other.
  • Distributed Proccessing: the ability of the operating system to run many processes on many computer systems that are distributed (distributed) in the network.
  • Distro: distribution of the Linux operating system with additional application options made by individuals, communities or companies.
  • Domain Name System (DNS): a hierarchy of distributed naming systems for computers, services or other resources that are connected to the internet or private networks.
  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP): the standard network protocol used to provide network address configuration on computers, laptops or tablets.
  • Event: an event or activity that occurs or is carried out on a system.
  • File (computer): documents stored digitally on electronic storage media.
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP): a standard network protocol used for sending files from computer to other computers over a TCP protocol based network.
  • Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS): a standard that regulates the file hierarchy of UNIX / Linux operating systems and their derivatives.
  • First In First Out (FIFO): what / who comes first will be processed first. Flowchart: diagram that states the sequence of activities for solving a problem. Folder (computer): a file that is used to group other files.
  • GNU Grand Unified Bootloader (GRUB): boot loader application used on GNU-based systems.
  • Graphical User Interface (GUI): interface that allows users to interact with computers through graphic images in the form of buttons, icons, menus or the like.
  • Hard disk: secondary storage media in computer construction that generally uses magnetic disks.
  • HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP): the protocol in a web application that regulates formatting, sending web documents and other web communication commands.
  • Computer kernel: the main program of the operating system used to process input / output requests between applications and processors, or other electronic devices on the computer.
  • Linux Loader (LILO): one of the boot loader applications used on the Linux operating system.
  • Log: records generated by the application.
  • Mulitasking / Multiprogramming: the ability of the operating system to run more than one application at a time.
  • Multiboot: a system that supports the installation of more than one operating system and allows the user to choose which system to run.
  • Multiprocessing: the ability of the operating system to use more than one processor on one computer.
  • Multithreading: the ability of the operating system to run multiple threads (part of the application) at one time.
  • Multiuser: the ability of the operating system to support use by more than one person at the same time.
  • Network Address Translation (NAT): translation of IP addresses from one network to another IP address that is recognized by the destination network.
  • Network Operating System (NOS): the operating system used to build services on a computer network.
  • Partition: designation of a smaller part of an object.
  • Nonpreemptive scheduling: scheduling processes that will run one process to completion before running another process.
  • Preemptive scheduling: process scheduling allows it to be paused and execution is transferred to other processes.
  • Process scheduling: scheduling activities performed by the operating system of the running processes.
  • Task scheduling: scheduling the execution of a script / command / program by the user on the operating system.
  • Plug and Play (PnP): a feature provided by the operating system to be able to automatically install every new hardware connected to the computer.
  • Process: the program that is being executed by the processor.
  • Proxy server: a server computer that acts as an intermediary between users on the network and external resources that are being accessed.
  • Recovery: an attempt to restore control of a system.
  • Restore (computer): an attempt to restore original data through data backup.
  • Secure Shell (SSH): a network cryptographic protocol that manages data communication security, remote login, remote command execution and other remote services between two computers.
  • Server: a computer in which there is a network operating system and a service application for the user.
  • Shebang: line consisting of # characters! followed by the location of the interpreter (shell) used in making the script file.
  • Shortest Job First (SJF): the work that is completed most quickly will be done first.
  • File system: a system that regulates the mechanism of data storage or file hierarchy.
  • Open source operating system: an operating system whose program code is open to the public and can be modified by anyone.
  • Close source operating system: an operating system whose program code is closed to the public.
  • Operating System: a set of programs used to control all functions that exist on the computer such as hardware control, scheduling and application execution.
  • Scripts: a collection of commands stored in one file to accomplish a specific purpose.
  • Scripting: programming that uses interpreters as executors.
  • Small Office Home Office (SOHO): A type of small business undertaken in offices with simple or home-based organizations.
  • Startup: Stages of loading a system, can be applied to computers, operating systems or application.
  • Taskbar: a block to manage all GUI applications currently running on the system operation.
  • Throughput: the amount of material that passes through a process or system.
  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP): the network protocol used to build the internet so that it can send data from one network device to another.
  • Turn around time: the time needed for a process to be executed by the operating system from the moment the process enters the system until the execution ends.
  • Upgrade: activities to upgrade an application program or operating system.
  • User interface: media that can be used by users to interact with applications.
  • Root user (superuser): the user name on the UNIX / Linux operating system and its descendants who have access to all available commands and resources.
  • User session: a user's visit to a system for a certain amount of time.
  • Variable: location of data storage in computer memory that is represented by a name
  • Virtualization: activities to create virtual inventions from something, such as virtual computers,
    operating system, storage media or network devices.
  • Response time: In the interactive system response time is defined as the time needed to carry out a process from the moment the last character of an order or transaction is entered until the first result appears on the screen. In real time systems the response time is defined as the time needed by the operating system to carry out the process from the moment of the event (either internal or external) until the first instruction of the process is executed.
  • Window (computer): an area of the application to display or hold other GUI components.

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