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Sports Physiology And Healthy Body

Sports Physiology is a branch of physiology that studies physiological changes in the body when a person is exercising. By knowing the changes that occur in the body, a person can design an exercise program to get optimal changes as expected. Sports Health basically examines the mutual relationship between Health and Sports. The main target is how health supports sports performance, and how sport supports one's health degree.

The National Health System adopted in Indonesia is essentially a reflection of efforts to improve the ability of every individual and the whole community to solve their own health problems leading to the improvement of certain levels of health. This capacity building is an integral part of national development because of its interrelation and dependence on other sectors of development. The role of other sectors and the community is very much needed in an effort to institutionalize healthy living norms, so that the ability to behave in a healthy life for every Indonesian person, every family, and all Indonesian people is increased.

Sports Physiology

Efforts to improve health can actually be done by everyone through simple and inexpensive activities. Besides eating arrangements, the use of exercise is a simple and inexpensive effort to improve health as long as it is accompanied by knowledge and understanding of proper sports health. The ability of self-help husada in the family needs to be nurtured and nurtured from an early age, so as to avoid health problems that can weaken the resilience of Human Resources for development.

A healthy community will not be achieved simply by channeling more funds into healing efforts. Any improvement in social structure and personal behavior patterns is far more effective in reducing the burden of disease. Sport plays a major role in changing these patterns of behavior. The era of push botton (staying mass) as a result of technological advances will reduce one's physical activity and in turn will increase the number of hypokinetic diseases. Excessive nutrition will cause degeneration of blood vessels, and increase the incidence of obesity with all the consequences. A life full of tension and competition will increase coronary heart disease, gastritis, and other psychosomatic diseases. If we look at health efforts from the type of action, then it can be divided into promotive (increasing), preventive (preventive), curative (healing), and rehabilitative (recovery) efforts.

Sports teacher with all the advantages can be an "agent of change" for healthy people and achievers by developing students from an early age. This sporting effort not only aims to be healthy but also aims to prepare children's achievements in sports. A very noble role to shape the future human resources in terms of physical, mental, and social.

Body changes due to exercise.

With exercise changes will occur in the body according to the type, duration, and intensity of the exercise performed. In general, regular exercise at a sufficient dose will cause the following changes:

Changes in the Heart

The heart will get bigger and stronger so that the capacity is large and the pulse is strong. Both of these will increase the efficiency of the work of the heart. With high work efficiency, the heart doesn't need to beat too often. In people who do not exercise, the heart rate averages 80 times per minute, while in people who do regular exercise, the heart rate averages 60 times per minute. Thus in one minute saved 20 beats, in one hour 1200 beats, and in one day 28,800 beats. These savings make the heart durable, and may be expected to live longer with high levels of productivity (Strauss, 1979).

Changes in blood vessels

The elasticity of blood vessels will increase due to the reduction of fat deposits and the addition of muscle contraction of blood vessel walls. High elasticity of blood vessels will accelerate the course of blood and prevent hypertension. Besides the increased elasticity of blood vessels, small blood vessels (capillaries) will also increase density. Coronary heart disease can be overcome and prevented by this mechanism of change. The smooth flow of blood will also speed up the disposal of fatigue substances as residual combustion so that recovery from fatigue can be expected (Soekarman, 1987).

Changes in Lungs

Lung elasticity will increase so that the ability to develop deflation will also increase. In addition the number of active alveoli (open) will increase with regular exercise. Both of the above will cause the capacity to collect and channel oxygen to the blood to increase. Breathing increases with a smaller frequency. Along with changes in the heart and blood vessels, all three are responsible for delaying fatigue (McArdle, 1986).

Changes in Muscle

Muscle strength, flexibility, and endurance will increase. This is caused by the increase in the amount of muscle fibers and the increase in the energy supply system in the muscles. More than that changes in this muscle will support the agility of movement and reaction speed, so that in many cases accidents can be avoided (Brooks, 1984).

Changes in Bones

Increasing the activity of enzymes in bone will increase bone density, strength, and size, as well as preventing bone loss. The bone surface will also get stronger with the continuous muscle pull (Fox, 1988).

Changes to the Ligament and Tendon

The strength of the ligament and tendon will increase, as will the attachment of the tendon to the bone. This situation will make the ligament and tendon able to withstand heavy loads and not easily injured (Teitz, 1989).

Changes to joints and cartilage

Regular exercise can cause increased thickness of cartilage in the joints so that it can be a shock absorber and protect bones and joints from the danger of injury (Wilmore, 1981).

Changes to Acclimatization of Heat

Acclimatization of heat involves physiological adjustments that allow a person to work in a hot place. The increase in heat acclimation is due to the fact that when exercising there is also an increase in heat on the body and skin. The same situation will occur if someone works in a hot place (Fox, 1984).
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