The Right Amount of Exercise Training

At the before we was explain about the benefits of exercise. And now, we will also explain about the right amount of exercise training for healthy body. The correct exercise program must consider the potential of individual participants, for this reason the exercise dosage needs to be arranged, as following:

l. Intensity

Intensity is a measure that indicates the severity of excitatory exercise. Exercise intensity markers include an increase in heart rate every minute, which can be calculated on the radial artery or the cotratid artery. Calculate the pulse for 15 seconds, then the results of the calculation are four times, then the frequency of the heart beat per minute is obtained as shown in picture below.

heart rate measuring

While the level of exercise interactivity based on the frequency of the heart beat per minute is explained in the following table:

Table 1: Intensity levels according to Letzelter

Beats intensityHR level/minute
A maximum of
130 – 140
150 – 160
> 180
-->(Source: Nosek, J., 1982)

Exercise intensity is safe and effective for increasing and maintaining fitness can be determined partly by way of taking into account:

a .THR (Target Heart Rate) == 60 s.d. 90% HRR (Heart Rate Reserve).

THR = 60 to 90% (maxHR - restHR) + HR rest

max HR is: the maximum heart rate that can be reached per minute, can be predicted with 220 - Age

rest HR are: heart rate / minute frequency at rest (wake up before getting out of bed).

Example: participant aged 40 years, 
  • rest HR = 60 beats / min. 
  • max HR = 220 - 40 = 180 beats / minute
  • THR = 60% (180 - 60) + 60 = 132 beats / minute
So when practicing, the participant's heart rate must reach 132 times / minute. 

b. THR = 60 to 85% max heart rate or maximum heart rate.

Example: participants aged 60 years, the heart rate while practicing (THR) must reach 60% (220 - 60) =% up to 85% (220 - 60) = 136 beats / minute.

c. Practical way with the Talking test if while practicing the participants are still able to speak with breathing heavier than the state of not practicing then the intensity is right, but if the participant is still able to speak but panting, then the thing as a marker of exercise intensity is too high ( Marybeth 1993: 16).

2. Frequency

The frequency of training is the number of exercises performed each week. To improve fitness is needed 3-5 times / week, it should be done intermittently for example Monday - Wednesday - Friday. This is intended to give the body a chance to recover from energy sources and eliminate fatigue.

3. Duration

The duration of the exercise is the length of the stimulation or the length of exercise for each session. According to Anderson (1994: 117) to improve and maintain fitness Exercise must be done for 20 - 60 minutes without stopping. The results of the exercise will look real after practicing routine for 12
- 16 Weeks (Fox, 1988).

Exercise Model

Model or type of exercise to improve fitness has the characteristics: aerobic, involving large muscles, can be maintained continuity and rhythmic continuity. The types of exercises that can be done include: among others:


Jogging is running slowly continuously. This type of training is very easy to do by anyone and anywhere, especially if it is fun to do in groups, on the streets are clean and cool atmosphere in the morning. Jogging can also be done indoors by using a treadmill. Jogging is beneficial to increase heart-lung and muscle fitness. Finish jogging, don't stop suddenly, keep running or walk slowly until your heartbeat returns to normal.


Cycling can be done in the open (open road) or bicycle on the spot (stationary). Cycling in the open nature brings its own pleasure, especially when run with family or relatives. While stationary bikes have an advantage, which can be done anytime, day or night and in all seasons or rainy or hot weather, the intensity of the exercise is easily controlled and there is no risk of accident. If done regularly it will be beneficial to improve fitness.


Swimming is very popular with all levels of society from infants to seniors, because in the pool brings another atmosphere / different from everyday atmosphere. Swimming involves all limbs, so that it can release fatigue, improve fitness and even be able to therapy.


At present aerobics club clubs are mushrooming everywhere, both in fitness centers, fitness groups and fitness plazas in hotels. With a dynamic rhythm to bring joy so, without feeling we have practiced aerobic exercise that is beneficial for fitness, the intensity of gymnastics can be chosen according to the rhythm of the music, namely: low, medium and high.


Aquarobics is a type of aerobic fitness training, carried out in water that has a temperature of 28-29 °, generally in swimming pools with accompaniment or without musical accompaniment. With the presence of water media, aquarobics is an effective and safe exercise to improve fitness, especially for those who experience physical obstacles. like: obesity, injury. arthritis, back pain and after childbirth.

In one aquarobic exercise session, containing starching warm-up, cardiovascular warm-up, aerobic training, cardiovascular cooling, flexibility and strength training, complete cooling.

Exercise Procedure

Exercise contains a series of movements that must be done in a manner sequential:
  • Warning up
  • Core training (Main part)
  • Calming (Colling down)
Warning up 

Warming up before physical activity has benefits including:
  1. Physiological, increase metabolic rate, accelerate and perfect oxygen dissociation from hemoglobin. Reducing the thickness of muscle protoplasm, accelerating and strengthening muscle contraction, increasing the sensitivity of nerve receptors and the speed of transmission of nerve impulses and blood circulation.
  2. Psychological, although the psychological effects of warming up have not been studied, it is involved that: Athletes are better prepared to do exercise, reduce anxiety and increase concentration.
  3. Prevention of injury, an increase in tissue temperature generated during heating will reduce the possibility of muscle and joint injury.
Warming up activities consist of: mild aerobic running, stretching or stretching, calesthenics and formal activities.
  • Light aerobics. Light aerobic running or jogging is useful to increase the temperature of muscles and body, stimulate the work of the lungs so that blood circulation 'becomes smooth.
  • Stretching. Handling is beneficial to increase flexibility and prevent injury. Extend to the large muscle groups and joints that will be used to practice, for example shoulder muscles back, knees, legs and others. By stretching it will back, knees, legs and so on. By stretching it will increase joint flexibility and eliminate stiffness muscle.
  • Kalestenik. After stretching, continue with calesthenic rhythmic, dynamic movements. Wear this exercise on the neck, abdomen, arms, shoulders, legs etc. Calesthenic movements cause an increase in body temperature, develop muscle strength and endurance.
  • Formal activity. Formal activities contain a series of movements that resemble real training. For example we will practice rowing; then the formal activity in the form of arm movements such as people rowing. Warming up is considered sufficient if the body temperature rises 1 - 2 ° C, HR reaches 60% max Hr, a little sweat on the forehead, back and hands.
Core Training (Main Part)

The core training takes the form of physical activity arranged in the program in accordance with the objectives to be achieved. For example, if you want to improve fitness by jogging, then do jogging at a certain intensity, for example participants aged 40 years, the THR that must be achieved is 138-170 beats / minute, keep the THR fluctuating for 15 - 60 minutes.

Calming down (coolling down)

Calming consists of a series of movements, mild aerobic exercise, stretching as in heating, with lower intensity, so that body temperature and heart rate return to the condition before practicing gradually and speeding up the recovery process.

Heart rate fluctuations in one training session are explained in picture below.

Exercise physiological dynamics curve

Heart rate fluctuations
(Source: Bompa, 1994).

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