Understanding, definition, causes of Osteoporosis and its prevention. Osteoporosis is bone loss caused by reduced levels of mineral lime (demineralization of Ca2 +) of bones, which causes bones to become brittle.
Osteoporosis in women is associated with a reduction in the hormone estrogen. Which occurs in menopause; in men is associated with reduced androgen hormones. Osteoporosis in the Western World is already an epidemic. Indonesia will go to the same condition because in 2010 the number of menopausal women is estimated to reach 35 million people (PR-Sunday 2 Sept 2001).
Osteoporosis is accompanied by an increased incidence of fractures (especially broken bones) in the spina (vertebrae), wrists and cervical vertebrae. For example the occurrence of compression of a spinal fracture that causes kyphosis (hunches) accompanied by back pain, this symptom of 20% occurs in women aged over 60 years.
According to Santosa Giriwijoyo (2007) the number of women sufferers is 4x more than men. This is caused by:
- Women's bones from the start are smaller than men
- The process of demineralization in women is faster. Based on the research of experts Santoso Giriwijoyo et al (2007) said, after menopause, during the first 5 years osteoporosis in women 4% per year, then slowed.
Men in menopause occur at a later age, characterized by reduced fertility due to reduced production of endrogen hormone (testosterone), which causes osteoporosis.
Determinants of bone mass
- Genetic: There are osteoporosis sufferers in hereditary families.
- Hormonal: Androgens are important for bone metabolism in men Estrogen, perhaps also progesterone is important for bone metabolism in women
- Environmental factor :
- Sports, especially health sports with important weight bearing to inhibit the process of osteoporosis
Diet Needs of Ca2 + (lime) for the prevention of osteoporosis between 1000 - 1500 mg / day. Which is good for consumption such as skim milk, yogurt with low fat content. In the case of milk allergy should be replaced by consuming Ca2 + tablets.
Things that can improve the process of decalcification of bones (increase excretion Ca2 + in urine):
- Eat lots of meat
- Drink lots of caffeine in coffee, tea, chocolate and coca
Things that can inhibit Ca2 + absorption:
Osteoporosis can only be inhibited, can not be cured, because of that prevention is very important and even must be started from the age before puberty.
Intake enough Ca2 + especially at puberty and prevent foods that can increase the decalcification process or that can inhibit Ca2 + absorption so that bone mass can reach its maximum at the end of puberty.
Doing a lifetime of exercise, especially in women, because bone mass is positively correlated with the strength of the muscles in the cast in question. Another benefit of exercise is to improve the ability to move (mobility) and the ability to coordinate so that people are better able to maintain balance and not easily fall. Fall is the most important cause for fractures (broken bones) in osteoporosis. The type of exercise should be weight-bearing, that is, exercise by using weights for large muscle groups. Frequency per week is 3x, with duration (length of time)> 30 minutes.
Hormone therapy should be started early in menopause, especially in women, to prevent rapid bone loss. Menopause is much feared by women because it will cause various complaints such as wrinkled skin, sagging breasts, vaginal dryness and decreased libido. Therefore, hormone therapy is also used to delay menopause. However, hormonal therapy needs to be aware of the possibility of malignancy (cancer), namely the occurrence of breast and uterine cancer in women and prostate cancer in men. Therefore hormonal therapy must be under a doctor's supervision