What are the benefits or exercises or sport training for our body? Health and fitness problems caused by lack of movement include: overweight as a trigger for the emergence of various non-infectious diseases such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, back pain and others. The situation seems to have been increasingly realized by the public, ha! this we can prove by the increasing number of community members who carry out sports activities, especially on holidays, both individually and in groups.
If we look at the way they do the exercises, then the question arises, is it really that way? Because in general they do the exercises only on holidays or Sundays, how long do they exercise? It turned out to be very varied, depending on his will. There are those who do, for a moment, there are also some who are longer but with modest movements. From this phenomenon arises a problem that needs to be addressed, namely how to do proper exercise training so that it can safely and effectively improve fitness.
Physical Fitness or Sport Training / Exercises
Physical fitness is defined as; the ability to do work efficiently, without causing significant exhaustion (Hezbollah, 1972). According to Pollock (1984), physical fitness related to health consists of components: cardio respiratory endurance, muscle strength, body composition and flexibility.
Cardio respiration endurance
Cardio respiratory endurance is the ability of the heart-lung to take and carry oxygen for long-term muscle work. Muscle strength is defined as the ability of a muscle or group of muscles to overcome the burden in one effort.
The structure of the human body is composed of lean body weight (muscle, bone d; tn internal organs) and fat weight. Women in general have a greater amount of fat than raising men.
The composition of a person's body is closely related to the diet and physical activity undertaken. People who are not physically active will: cause obesity, which is loaded with health risks such as; coronary heart, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atheroscellosis, ashma, etc., a person is identified as obese if the body is severe or bad,> 2.0% of ideal BB (Fox, 1988: 367).
Flexibility is related to the breadth of joint motion. Someone's determination is influenced by various factors including:
- The shape, type, joint structure, ligaments and tendons
- Muscles around the joints
- Age and gender. Children and women in general have better flexibility, maximum flexibility is achieved at the age of 15-16 years.
- Body and muscle temperature, at a temperature of 40 ° C, flexibility increased by 20% while in subu 18 ° C decreased by 10-20%.
- Daily time, optimum flexibility occurs at 10 ... 00-11: 00 clan at 16.00 - 17.00 WIB, as a result of biological changes in the central nervous system and muscle tension.
- Muscle strength.
- Fatigue and emotions.
Benefit flexibility reduces the possibility of injury and increases mobility so participants can appear more dynamic.
At present physical fitness status shows less favorable status, this is proven by research data, among others; Death rates in the United States 34% are due to heart attacks, 11% due to stroke, 3% hypertension and 6%. other heart pulmonary disorders (Fox, 1988). Likewise, a study conducted by the sub-department of sports development at the Ministry of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia in 1985 - 1990 on the physical fitness of employees in West Java and OKI Jakarta showed the results as follows: 92.4% cardiorespiratory endurance including less and less categories, 24% excess fat , 17% less strength, 5% less flexibility (Soeharto, 1991).
A person's physical fitness status is determined by his lifestyle, namely: eating arrangements, opportunities for rest and proper exercise habits. A person's fitness is closely related to health (preventing various diseases), increasing life expectancy and productivity. Exercise training is a good alternative for improving fitness status.
Definition of exercises or sport training
Exercise is a systematic process using excitatory motion aimed at improving or maintaining the functional quality of the body (Thomson, 1991). Exercise does not cure all kinds of diseases (panacea), as many people think. Exercise is the cheapest and most enjoyable form of disease prevention. If the exercise is carried out regularly and measured it will be beneficial for the improvement of physical fitness, namely the body's ability to function efficiently in carrying out daily tasks.
The benefits of Sport Training or exercises
The benefits of Sport Training or exercises can be identified as follows:
- Physical benefits, improve the function of body organs such as heart, blood vessels, lungs, muscles, bones; joints, improve metabolism in the body, reduce body fat and balance cholesterol.
- Psychic Benefits, exercise causes a person to be more resistant to stress and better able to concentrate. This is caused by increased blood supply and decreased salt levels in the brain. Anxiety in women before menstruation, caused by increased levels of salt in the blood. And an increase in estrogen hormon. In addition, exercise can increase feelings of achievement.
- Social benefits, increase self-confidence, cooperation and effective means of communication.
From the benefits mentioned above, it is expected to be able to bring someone to live more dynamic, productive and increase life expectancy. In order for sports training or exercise to safely and effectively improve fitness, it must be done properly by paying attention to the principles of exercise, measuring exercise, choosing the right mode of exercise, proper procedures and good programs.