Definition of Ecology, Ecosystems, Environment Science, Health and Environment sanitation

The basic concept of environmental sanitation science derived from the study of relationships between living things with total life, or so-called ecological environment. The concept was later expanded into several other disciplines, such as environmental science, environmental health sciences, and environmental sanitation.

Limitations and Definitions


Ernst Haeckel {1869), a biologist at the Germans, used the term ecology comes from the Greek word "oikos" meaning home or a place to live. The word literally means the science that studies the total relationship between organisms and their environment in that are organic or inorganic.


According Tansley (1935), Ecosystem is the elements of the scene of the total relationship between an organism and its environment that is both organic and inorganic in a particular place. For example, freshwater ecosystem, urban, and so on.

Environmental Science

Environmental science is the application of the principles and provisions of ecology in human life. Application of the principles and provisions of the ecology of human life can be in the form of approach and methodology, namely:
  • Holistic Approach. Full approach in the form of analytical and reductionistic (Odum and Boyden).
  • Evolutionary Approach. The approach examines the evolution happens to actors in the environment, either individually, population, and community.
  • Interactive Approach. According to the assessment results Price, et al. (1983), a life must be seen from the interactive relationships between the components and is a bottom-up approach to identify the ecosystem or environment better.
  • Situational Approach. Jarvie, Papper, and Vayda, advocated for ecological approach by looking at the change in the situation when a problem arises.
  • Socio systems and Ecosystem Approach. This approach seeks to separate the environment into the social systems and natural systems as well as learning into the flow of matter, energy, and information. From between the two will result in the selection and adaptation process.
  • Approach Role and Human Behavior. This approach seeks to study the role of humans in the program MAB (man and biosphere) or approach human use (UNESCO, 1974).
  • The contextual approach Progressive. This approach is interdisciplinary and can be traced progressively so that any problems can be understood well.
  • Environmental Quality Approach. This approach is a continuation contextual progressive approach which was then developed with the preparation of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA).

Environmental Health Sciences
Environmental health sciences is a multidisciplinary science that studies the dynamics of the interactive relationship between a group of people or people with various components of changes in the human environment that could be expected to cause health problems in the community and learn an attempt to prevent it. 

Science of Environmental Sanitation

Science of environmental sanitation is part of environmental health sciences which includes measures and efforts of individuals or communities to control and manage the external environment that are harmful to health and which can threaten human survival.

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