Treatment of Cough and Colds in children

Children who cough common cold should be kept warm and are more often given to drink and nutritious food. The baby's body temperature is down. Therefore, it should be kept warm if they are coughing or sneezing. Children who coughs, colds, runny nose or sore throat that normal breathing can be treated at home and maybe recover without medication. They need to be kept warm, but not excessive, and given food and drink that much. Medicines given only at the direction of a physician or health care workers.

Children with high fevers should be compressed with lukewarm water. The regional distribution of malaria, fever can be a dangerous thing. Therefore, the child should be examined by a health worker.

Runny nose or cough child should be cleaned frequently, especially before eating or sleeping child. Facilitate breathing moist air and helps if the child desires sipping from a bowl of warm water.

Children are still breastfeeding and exposed to cough or cold should still be given breast milk. Breastfeeding helps fight disease and important for growing children. If the child can not suckle, then the milk is squeezed into a clean bowl to bite the child.

Children who are not breastfed should often given food or drink little by little. If it has been cured, the child should still be given extra nutritious foods every day for at least a week. Children are not considered to be recovered before returning the same weight as before the illness.
Coughs and colds are contagious. People who are suffering from a cough or cold should keep away from children. Whenever cough, get used to cover mouth and nose with the upper arm, with the elbow or a tissue. Do not spit and make it a habit to wash hands with soap to avoid infection.

Cough and colds with fever (38ºC or more), headache, joint and muscle pain, sore throat, and sometimes vomiting and diarrhea can be a sign of the New Influenza A H1N1.

New Influenza A (H1N1) is transmitted through direct contact between humans through coughing, sneezing, or indirect contact with objects contaminated by the virus. Symptoms are similar to regular flu:
  • Fever (38ºC or more).
  • Cough, colds.
  • Sore throat.
  • Tired, lethargic.
  • It may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
  • When more weight will result in shortness of breath or rapid breathing.

Preventive measures New Influenza A H1N1:
  • Teach children to wash hands with soap and clean water as often as possible.
  • When sneezing or coughing, teach the child to cover your nose and mouth with upper arm or elbow or a tissue and throw the tissue put in the trash.
  • Teach children to keep a distance of at least one meter with others, especially if one is sick
  • flu in the vicinity.
  • If the child has flu symptoms wear a mask and immediately take it to the doctor, clinic, hospital, or clinic nearby.
  • Teach children to live a clean and healthy by maintaining personal hygiene and the environment.

Cough common cold if not promptly treated can become pneumonia, or infection impromptu attacks the lungs. Symptoms and signs of pneumonia in infants and toddlers generally accompanied by difficulty breathing cough, such as rapid breathing, pull the lower chest wall into at the time of a sigh. The disease is classified as hazardous and children who experience it needs to be brought to the clinic or hospital.

In general, cough, runny nose, sore throat, and runny nose heal without treatment. But sometimes the disease can deteriorate into pneumonia and require antibiotics. Antibiotics in children with pneumonia should be in accordance with the instructions the doctor or health worker. Antibiotics should be given to children until they run out.

Pneumonia in infants and children under five are caused by bacteria, whereas for the age of five years or more pneumonia are caused by bacteria but not viruses.

Many children are affected by pneumonia died from their parents or mothers are not aware of the severity of the disease and late brought to the health center or hospital. Child mortality due to pneumonia can be prevented if:
  • Parents and caregivers understand that cough with breathing difficulties such as the pull of the lower chest wall into the current breath is a sign of danger and the need to immediately ask for help healthcare workers.
  • Parents and caregivers need to know where to get help.
  • Health care and antibiotics that are affordable is always available.

The child should be immediately taken to the health center or a trained health worker if there are signs as follows:
  • Children breathe faster than normal.

  1. children aged less than two months: 60 times per minute or more.
  2. children aged 2-12 months: 50 times per minute or more.
  3. children aged 12 months to five years: 40 times per minute or more.
  4. children aged 5-12 years: 30 times per minute or more.
  5. children aged 13 years or more: 20 times per minute or more.
  • Children have difficulty breathing or shortness of breath.
  • Chest bottom interested in at the time the child breathe or look at abdominal movements up and down.
  • Child cough for more than two weeks.
  • Children can not breastfeed or drink.
  • Children's often vomiting.
  • Child seizures.
  • Children with decreased consciousness.

Health workers should provide information to parents and caregivers about the health risks of children who develop pneumonia, ways of prevention and treatment.

Pneumonia can be prevented. How, families encourage mothers still exclusively breastfed infants for at least the first six months, in addition to providing nutritious menu and complete immunization of children, and keep the child from the patient coughs.

Breastfeeding helps protect babies from pneumonia and other diseases. It is very important to give only breast milk during the first six months of a baby's life.

After six months of age the child should be given healthy food varied while still breast-fed.

Healthy foods including fruits and green leafy vegetables as well as milk, fish and eggs. Children receiving nutritious food are not easily hurt or threatened death.

Vitamin A helps protect children against coughs, colds and other respiratory tract disease and may speed healing. Vitamin A is found in breast milk, liver, coconut oil, fish, milk, eggs, orange and yellow fruits and green vegetables. Supplements of vitamin A can also be requested at the health center.

Clean water and sanitation can reduce the number of patients with respiratory tract infections and other diseases, including diarrhea. Fruits and vegetables should be washed before serving. Additionally get used to wash hands with water and soap.

Immunizations must be given in full before the child was one year old. Children will get protection from measles can cause pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections, including whooping cough and tuberculosis.

Parents and caregivers should know that girls and boys alike need to get nutritious food and immunization. Health workers should provide information to parents and caregivers of children about nutritious food, hygiene, and immunizations to protect yourself from pneumonia and other diseases.

Infants, toddlers, pregnant women, and the elderly are particularly vulnerable to coughs and colds, especially when exposed to air pollutants such as cigarette smoke, cooking smoke, fumes, factory smoke, and forest fires

Children are more susceptible to pneumonia and other respiratory problems if they live in a polluted environment smoke. Cigarette smoke can harm a child, even when they are still in the womb. Therefore, pregnant women are prohibited from smoking or inhaling smoke.

Habit of smoking usually begins in adolescence. If cigarette advertising and promotion incentive, the adults around them smoke-free cigarettes, especially if the price is affordable, the youth tend to start and used to smoke. Therefore, it is important to tell the youth about the dangers of smoking and smoke are encouraged not to participate.

Passive smokers inhale cigarette smoke was in the air for hours after other people's smoke. By inhaling the smoke can harm the respiratory tract, there was a respiratory infection, asthma, and lead to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in addition to the risk of lung cancer.

Parents and caregivers need to know the consequences that harm to passive smokers and take responsibility for the cigarette smoke is inhaled children. Government and society must work together to inform the public that the smoke-filled environment harmful secondhand smoke, especially children.

Children who cough continuously for up to two weeks or more should be immediately taken to the doctor. The possibility that children exposed to tuberculosis infection chronic lung infections other types.

Children who are exposed to tuberculosis should be immediately taken to a health facility. Signs of children affected by tuberculosis, namely:
  • Children lost weight for no apparent reason.
  • Fever two weeks or more for no apparent reason.
  • The source of the infection in the family.

Clinical symptoms of tuberculosis disease in adults are:
  • Coughing up phlegm for 2-3 weeks or more.
  • Accompanied by additional symptoms, namely sputum mixed with blood, coughing up blood, shortness of breath, weakness, loss of appetite, weight loss, malaise / malaise, night sweats without physical activity, fever, chills more than one month.

Diagnosis of tuberculosis in adults with sputum microscopic examination performed by collecting three sputum specimens collected in two consecutive day visit, such as As-Morning-As.

Enforcement of child tuberculosis diagnosis using a scoring system, which is weighted toward symptoms or clinical signs were found.

Families can help prevent tuberculosis if:
  • Children fully immunized includes BCG which can provide protection against tuberculosis.
  • Children are given nutritious foods so as to have a good body resistance against the entry of germs
  • Children deprived of anyone suffering from tuberculosis or cough with bloody cough.

If health officials gave special treatment for tuberculosis, it is important to give medication as directed defined and patient compliance in taking medication until completion of treatment. If not, there will be resistance to the drugs given so do not quickly recover if the illness again.

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