Every pregnancy is special. To ensure a healthy pregnancy and safe all pregnant women should checkups at least four times. Pregnant women and their families should be able to recognize the signs of labor and danger signs of pregnancy. They must have a birth plan and the prevention of complications to get the care and help health professionals.
When the young mother's life was active, they need information about the risks of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. They should be able to recognize the early symptoms of pregnancy. If it turns out pregnant, they should be helped to get prenatal care early in pregnancy from a trained health worker. He must also learn about the stages of normal pregnancy and how to care for the health of themselves and their babies during pregnancy, in addition to knowing also the danger signs of pregnancy.
Pregnant women do at least four antenatal care visits to health workers trained. The first pregnancy tests should be performed as soon as possible. Should be done in the first trimester of pregnancy. The second examination in the second trimester and twice the examination in the third trimester.
To ensure a safe and healthy pregnancy, a trained health worker must:
- Provide information about the various changes that occur in the body of a pregnant woman.
- Check blood pressure that can harm the mother and child.
- Considering weight.
- Check for anemia and providing iron tablet supplements as well as ensuring that the mother understands the importance of taking these supplements, and explain about side effects that usually occur including constipation and nausea.
- Checking possibility of night blindness to determine whether the mother requires treatment of vitamin A, and if necessary, provide vitamin A to protect the mother and increase the healthy development of the fetus.
- Assess maternal tetanus immunization status and give the number of doses needed to protect the mother and the new born baby.
- Encourage all pregnant women using only iodized salt in preparing food to protect their children so as not physical disabilities, mental and nor attacked goiter.
- Encourage all pregnant women eat more nutritious food, and more rest than usual.
- In malaria endemic areas, give antimalarial tablets and advise to use insecticide-treated nets.
- Provide worming if necessary since the second trimester to reduce cases of low birth weight.
- Prepare the parents for the experience of childbirth and caring for newborns. Provide advice to the mother to breastfeed and care for themselves, and also give instructions to the father about how he could help.
- Provide advice to pregnant women and their families about where to give birth and how to get help in case of complications before, during or after childbirth.
- Setting up a referral if needed for various groups of people who want to provide help and protect pregnant women who experience violence.
- Providing advice to avoid infectious diseases including sexually transmitted HIV.
- Checking the infection during pregnancy, especially infections and urinary tract infections that are transmitted through sexual intercourse, including HIV and treat it with proper treatment.
- Perform laboratory tests (hemoglobin and urine).
- Setting up a voluntary HIV testing and counseling services and confidential.
Maternal and Newborn
Pregnant women who are HIV positive should consult a trained health workers on how to reduce the risk of transmission of the infection to her baby during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding and how to care for themselves and their babies. Pregnant women who thought themselves exposed to HIV infection should be helped to get the test and counseling. Similarly, the prospective father should be tested and receive counseling. (See chapter, on HIV for more information)
Every pregnant woman and her family need to know that pregnancy and parenthood has a variety of risks. They must be able to recognize the warning signs.
Generally recommended, the mother should give birth in a health facility and assisted by trained health personnel, since the incidence of birth complications can not be predicted. For some women, it is more important because of the possibility of complications will increase, if they:
- Aged under 18 years of age or over the age of 35 years.
- Have a baby less than two years ago.
- Have been a few times for preterm birth or having a baby less than 2.5 kg at birth.
- Have experience of childbirth with complications or childbirth with abdominal surgery sectio caesarea.
- Have a history of pregnancy poisoning.
- Have experience of miscarriage or stillbirth.
- High maternal weight less than 1.45 meters.
- weighing less than 38 kilograms.
- Have HIV or infection that is transmitted through sex.
Pregnant women should be helped to recognize the signs of the birth and know when to seek help from childbirth proficient helper who can help delivery.
Signs of birth, covering the following points:
- Stomach heartburn on a regular basis.
- Heartburn often and long.
- Exit mucus mixed with blood from the birth canal.
- Exit the waters of the birth canal.
Danger signs in pregnancy include:
- Bleeding in early pregnancy and pregnancy.
- Swelling in the legs, feet, hands or face and accompanied by headache or seizures.
- Fever or high heat.
- Air amniotic out prematurely.
- Movement of the baby in the womb is reduced or does not move.
- Vomiting continues.
- Do not want to eat.
During the inspection visit pregnancy, pregnant mothers and family members should get support to prepare for the birth and possible complications with a plan that includes several key points as follows:
- Where a mother about to give birth and which will be referred to in case of complications.
- Who will accompany the mother.
- How the mother in order to arrive at the destination.
- Items that will be necessary for the mother and baby.
- How much is needed and how these costs can be collected
- Who will help her family when the mother was not at home.
- Who will be a blood donor, if necessary.
Because conditions can change, birth plan and possible complications must be renewed every prenatal care visit.
Plan of emergency care in case of complications should include the location of the nearest maternity clinic, or hospital and the resources necessary to allow the mother arrived at the destination location at any time, day or night.
All pregnant women should have access to health care when they give birth. It is becoming more important, especially when the mother and her family are aware that the birth process would be difficult. In some cases, where the distance and the risk of birth are already expected to be a factor that must be taken into account, then the mother should move to a place closer to the clinic or hospital is chosen, so that in time to get service.
Health care workers, families and communities need to give special attention to teenage pregnancy because they have an increased risk of pregnancy complications is higher and in some cases they may not be able to affect the family for support or ask for help.