Childbirth is a critical period for mother and baby. Every birth mothers should be helped by trained health personnel are doctors or midwives, and refers to specialist care in case of complications.
Every pregnancy requires attention, because there will always be a bad risk to the mother, baby or both. Many dangers, illnesses or even death could have been avoided during and immediately after childbirth,
- Overseeing and following childbirth and observe in particular the danger signs that require immediate help.
- Tell the mother and her family if necessary specialist care or to be moved to a hospital.
- Reduce the risk of infection by maintaining the cleanliness of hands, tools and a place that will be used to deliver and always continue to use the gloves in time.
- Recommending that mothers who give birth will walk as long as he is at the stage of labor and helped arrange birthing position wished.
- Assist each stage of labor and delivered the baby.
- Cut the umbilical cord at the right time care.
- Caring for a baby and menjaganyatetap warm.
- Put the baby in the mother's breast so the baby is born. Let him try to find the nipple (Early Initiation of Breastfeeding).
- Place the placenta safely, and take care of new mothers.
- Provide antibiotic eye ointment for babies to prevent blindness and infection.
- Giving injections of vitamin K1.
- Provide hepatitis B immunization between one to two hours after injection of vitamin K1.
- Check and weigh the baby.
- Bathing the new normal baby should be done after six hours of birth to prevent freezing.
- Referring to the baby and mother to a more appropriate medical facility if necessary.
Postpartum care for mother and baby will reduce the risk of complications and help the family to a healthy baby. Mother and baby should be checked regularly after childbirth. If complications occur, examinations carried out more frequently.
Postpartum care performed by trained health personnel is important to ensure the longevity and health of the mother and baby. The first hour of the first day and first week and first month of birth, the baby is very vulnerable condition.
After the baby is born, skilled birth attendants, will be:
- Checking the health of puerperal women three times (one time after six hours, three days after birth, one in the second week and once in the sixth week).
- Checking the health of newborn babies three times (one time at the age of 6-48 hours, one time at the age of 3-7 days and one time at the age of 8-28 days).
- Advise and assist mothers on how to breastfeed exclusively.
- Suggest to both new parents, on how to prevent or delay the next birth.
- Advise the mother how to care for the umbilical cord.
- Suggest that the mother and the family always wash hands with soap before handling the baby.
- Advise the mother about (1) the problem of nutrition, rest, sanitation, immunization (2) if sleeping in the area of malaria using insecticide-treated mosquito nets, (3) conduct regular health checks as well as how to care for themselves and their babies, (4) give advice to his father to help the mother and baby purposes.
- Give capsule of vitamin A and iron supplementation in postpartum mothers.
- Describe the signs that potentially endanger the mother and baby.
- Help mothers, fathers and families in preparing contingency plans if complications arise.
- Provide an explanation to the mother and father of infectious diseases transmitted through sexual contact, including HIV. When you are infected, should be explained how to care for themselves and their children and how to practice how breastfeeding reduces the risk of infection to their babies.
- Provide guidance to HIV-positive mothers and their partners so that they can make decisions based on correct information about subsequent pregnancies and contraceptive method (further information see chapter HIV).
- Schedule the next visit for mother and baby.
For mothers or babies with complications, trained birth attendants should:
- Explain to the mother of the complications experienced by the baby and the treatment that should be received by the baby, and how the mother should continue to care for herself and her baby at home.
- Helping treatment for mothers when necessary, and provide an explanation of how and how long to use.
- Examining the type of immunization is not received by the mother, including tetanus toxoid (TT).
- Provide advice to the mother and father or caregiver about the best care for their baby, when the baby is born prematurely or too small, or have special needs.
- Schedule a subsequent visit to observe the health of mother and baby.
The days and weeks that first life is a very risky period for babies with low weight. Most newborn deaths occur in babies with low birth weight.
Indeed many of these deaths could be saved by doing postpartum care by skilled birth attendants who will:
- Recognize the symptoms and take action against the dangers arising from time to time.
- Provide support to the efforts earnest breastfeeding including milking and give milk to the glass.
- Keep the baby warm by helping mothers or caregivers do care "skin-to-skin touch" or also known as the Kangaroo Method (Kangaroo Mother Care).
- Immediately bring the baby to the emergency care if there are danger signs.
Danger signs in newborns:
- Do not want to suckle or spew all that drunk. This is a sign of infection weight infants.
- Babies seizures. Seizures in newborns is sometimes difficult to distinguish from normal movement. If you notice symptoms of unusual movements and occur repeatedly (yawning, chewing, sucking, eye blinking, eyes bulging, eyes whirling, legs like riding a bike) that does not stop when the baby is touched or stroked , possibility of infant seizures.
- The baby is weak, move only if held.
- Shortness of breath (60 times per minute or more) or 30 breaths per minute or less.
- The baby whimpered.
- Navel redness to the abdominal wall. If the redness is up to the abdominal wall, the sign already severe infections.
- Fever (temperature of the baby's body over 37,5º C) or body felt cold (baby's body temperature is less than 36,5º C).
- Eye fester much.
- Infant diarrhea, sunken eyes, unknowingly, if the skin is pinched stomach will return slowly. It's a sign the baby is dehydrated severe, can cause death.
- The baby's skin looks yellow. Yellow harmful to the baby if it appears on:
- The first day (less than 24 hours) after birth.
- Discovered at the age of more than 14 days.
- Yellow up to the hands or feet.