The definition of mental retardation is a state with a less intellectual (subnormal) since the time of development (from birth / since childhood). The main picture of general intellectual functioning below average (Intelligence quotient-IQ 70), arise before the age of 18 years.
Type and Classification of Mental Retardation
- Mild Mental Retardation with IQ 50-70
- Medium Mental Retardation with IQ 35-49
- Severe Mental Retardation with IQ 20-34
- Very heavy Intelligence quotient with IQ 20
- 71-84 IQ intelligence threshold.
Mental Retardation is a problem for a country that has been developed. Reflection of the social status of the nation. Mental Retardation can be viewed as a medical psychological problems or educational problem and in the last analysis is a "social problem". Mental Retardation is a problem for the child, parents / environment.
Causes of Mental Retardation
There some factor that can causes Mental Retardation, that is :
- Heredity: Genetic Mental Retardation
- Unknown: primary simplex Mental Retardation.
- External factors are known affect to the brain that causing brain damage, at the time of prenatal, natal, post-natal (due to biomedical factors 25%):
- Prenatal factors: damage of the brain tissue (interakranial infection or toxic substances: paralitis epidemic, rubella, syphilis, toxemia gravid); forced from / other physical causes (X-rays aged 2-3 weeks [affect to the brain tissue], attempts at abortion); due to metabolic or nutritional disorders (malnutrition of pregnant women); due to chromosomal abnormalities (abnormalities in amount, less the amount of [Down syndrome, mongolism], abnormalities in shape; due to illness / prenatal influences that are not obvious (primary anomalies, congenital defects).
- Natal factors: asphyxia, anoxia, prematurity, birth trauma.
- Post-natal factors: malnutrition, brain infections, brain trauma, 75% of the socio-cultural factors-psychological (less stimulation from the parents [affection, attention, communication], families are not able to provide protection against stress occurs, mothers can not function [psychosis])
Sign and symptoms of mental retardation
Intellegence qoutient between 0-50 (very heavy-medium mental retardation) showing biological abnormalities (+), found in all socio-economic levels, the diagnosis can be confirmed from birth or at a relatively early age, no one there of mental retardation prevalence in other family members.
IQ between 50-7 (mild mental retardation), Biological factors are not found, the diagnosis is confirmed after school age, many are in low socio-economic, is often found in similar degree of mental retardation in civil / her parents, may cause social deprivation ; deprivation language; deprivation of social stimulation; intellectual deprivation, may also be a single or a combination of genetic, biological and environmental ( malnutrition and early childhood care).
Physical signs of mongolism mental retardation, epicanthal width, head width, mouth gaping, tongue thick, rough hands and short fingers.
psychiatry Problem of child with mental retardation
Due to condition throughout their life, face more risk than a normal person. Pproper diagnosis of mental retardation need an accurate information in the form of: anamnesis from parents about pregnancy history, labor history, history of child development; psychological test to get an idea of the IQ test; laboratory test to determine HL / DL (Uriah ketones disease); hearing evaluation and speech; psychiatric observation.
Differential diagnosisof mental retardation
Differential diagnosis for mental retardation disorders are disease with hearing impairment, visual impairment, speech impairment, cerebral palsy, autism early infatil, or schizophrenia.
Primary Prevention of mental retardation
- Health education to the community to live healthy nutrition and hygiene
- Improved socio-economic status.
- Genetic counseling.
- Good medical services on prenatal, natal, post-natal mothers to infants.
Secondary prevention of mental retardation
- Early diagnosis and prompt treatment.
- Rehabilitation: education, special training
- The development life of emotional affects the relationship between humans and the inability to keep the baby cause trauma.
- The demands and expectations of their parents (parents who do not understand / know).
- The general attitude of society to mental retardation greatly affect parents' responses to the presence of a child with mental retardation in their family.
Mental retardation treatment
Treatment / treatments are Restricted by aimed at the causes of mental retardation, eg neurolepsilia, anxiety and hyperactivity. Spiritual care is emphasized.
That's a few things about the mental retardation definition, classification, prevention and treatment of the mental retardation